Astrocytes – Just Now

  • The reduction of astrocytic tau prevents amyloid-β-induced synaptotoxicity
    by Pablo Cisternas on October 5, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Alzheimer’s disease is a neurological disorder characterized by the overproduction and aggregation of amyloid-beta and the phosphorylation and intraneuronal accumulation of tau. These events promote synaptic dysfunction and loss, leading to neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. Astrocytes are intimately associated with synapses and become activated under pathological conditions, becoming neurotoxic and detrimentally affecting synapses. Although it has been established that reducing neuronal…

  • Brain Energy Metabolism: Astrocytes in Neurodegenerative Diseases
    by Zhenlei Chen on October 4, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain. They have many important functions in the central nervous system (CNS), including the maintenance of glutamate and ion homeostasis, the elimination of oxidative stress, energy storage in glycogen, tissue repair, regulating synaptic activity by releasing neurotransmitters, and participating in synaptic formation. Astrocytes have special highly ramified structure. Their branches contact with synapses of neurons inwardly, with fine structure and…

  • Identifying an oligodendrocyte enhancer that regulates Olig2 expression
    by Chuandong Fan on October 4, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Olig2 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a critical role in the central nervous system. It directs the specification of motor neurons and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) from neural progenitors and the subsequent maturation of OPCs into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs). It is also required for the development of astrocytes. Despite a decade-long search, enhancers that regulate the expression of Olig2 remain elusive. We have recently developed an innovative…

  • Regulation of wakefulness by astrocytes in the lateral hypothalamus
    by Ping Cai on October 4, 2022 at 10:00 am

    The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is an important brain region mediating sleep-wake behavior. Recent evidence has shown that central nervous system astrocytes modulate the activity of adjacent neurons and participate in several physiological functions. However, the role of LH astrocytes in sleep-wake regulation remains unclear. Here, using synchronous recording of electroencephalogram/electromyogram in mice and calcium signals in LH astrocytes, we show that the activity of LH astrocytes is…

  • Never in Mitosis Kinase 2 regulation of metabolism is required for neural differentiation
    by Danielle M Spice on October 4, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Wnt and Hh are known signalling pathways involved in neural differentiation and recent work has shown the cell cycle regulator, Never in Mitosis Kinase 2 (Nek2) is able to regulate both pathways. Despite its known function in pathway regulation, few studies have explored Nek2 within embryonic development. The P19 embryonal carcinoma cell model was used to investigate Nek2 and neural differentiation through CRISPR knockout and overexpression studies. Loss of Nek2 reduced cell proliferation in the…

  • Neuroprotective effects of combined therapy with memantine, donepezil, and vitamin D in ovariectomized female mice subjected to dementia model
    by Ana Daniela Coutinho Vieira on October 4, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Women older than 60 have a higher risk of dementia, aging-related cognitive decline, and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) than the rest of the population. The main reason is hormonal senescence after menopause, a period characterized by a decline in estrogen levels. Since the effectiveness of drugs currently approved for the treatment of AD is limited, it is necessary to seek the development of new therapeutic strategies. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in AD patients and individuals with dementia in…

  • Primary astrocytic mitochondrial transplantation ameliorates ischemic stroke
    by Eun-Hye Lee on October 4, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Mitochondria are important organelles that regulate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, intracellular calcium buffering, cell survival, and apoptosis. They play therapeutic roles in injured cells via transcellular transfer through extracellular vesicles, gap junctions, and tunneling nanotubes. Astrocytes can secrete numerous factors known to promote neuronal survival, synaptic formation, and plasticity. Recent studies have demonstrated that astrocytes can transfer mitochondria to damaged…

  • Silencing of Long Noncoding RNA GAS5 Blocks Experimental Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Restraining AQP4 Expression via the miR-1192/STAT5A Axis
    by Zhongzhong Jiang on October 4, 2022 at 10:00 am

    The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 has been shown to affect disease development in stroke. This study aimed to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of the lncRNA GAS5 on STAT5A in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. First, GAS5 and STAT5A levels in the blood of patients with stroke were determined. Then, a middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion rat model was established in which short hairpin RNAs targeting GAS5 or STAT5A were intracranially injected, followed by the assessment…

  • Editorial: Gliopathies in aging-related brain diseases: From understanding to therapy
    by Omar El Hiba on October 3, 2022 at 10:00 am

    No abstract

  • Mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate improves long-term cognitive impairment after general anesthesia exposure in neonatal mice
    by Xiaojun Zhang on October 3, 2022 at 10:00 am

    CONCLUSION: Disodium cromoglycate could effectively improve long-term cognitive impairment after GA exposure in neonatal mice.

  • Effects of central nervous system electrical stimulation on non-neuronal cells
    by Nathaniel P Williams on October 3, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Over the past few decades, much progress has been made in the clinical use of electrical stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS) to treat an ever-growing number of conditions from Parkinson’s disease (PD) to epilepsy as well as for sensory restoration and many other applications. However, little is known about the effects of microstimulation at the cellular level. Most of the existing research focuses on the effects of electrical stimulation on neurons. Other cells of the CNS such as…

  • Potential therapeutic effects and pharmacological evidence of sinomenine in central nervous system disorders
    by Hongxiang Hong on October 3, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Sinomenine is a natural compound extracted from the medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum. Its supplementation has been shown to present benefits in a variety of animal models of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, such as cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury (TBI), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), epilepsy, depression, multiple sclerosis, morphine tolerance, and glioma. Therefore, sinomenine is now considered a potential agent for the prevention…

  • Exercise improves choroid plexus epithelial cells metabolism to prevent glial cell-associated neurodegeneration
    by Yisheng Chen on October 3, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Recent studies have shown that physical activities can prevent aging-related neurodegeneration. Exercise improves the metabolic landscape of the body. However, the role of these differential metabolites in preventing neurovascular unit degeneration (NVU) is still unclear. Here, we performed single-cell analysis of brain tissue from young and old mice. Normalized mutual information (NMI) was used to measure heterogeneity between each pair of cells using the non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF)…

  • Modulation of working memory duration by synaptic and astrocytic mechanisms
    by Sophia Becker on October 3, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Short-term synaptic plasticity and modulations of the presynaptic vesicle release rate are key components of many working memory models. At the same time, an increasing number of studies suggests a potential role of astrocytes in modulating higher cognitive function such as WM through their influence on synaptic transmission. Which influence astrocytic signaling could have on the stability and duration of WM representations, however, is still unclear. Here, we introduce a slow,…

  • E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 confers neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via regulation of transcription factor C/EBPβ in microglia
    by Chuan He on October 3, 2022 at 10:00 am

    BACKGROUND: This study intends to investigate the potential involvement of E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury.