Astrocytes – Just Now

  • Four-repeat tauopathies and late-onset psychiatric disorders: Etiological relevance or incidental findings?
    by Osamu Yokota on July 1, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Argyrophilic grain disease (AGD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration are four-repeat (4R) tauopathies that develop in the presenium or later. Whether these diseases are associated with the occurrence of late-onset psychiatric disorders remains unclear. To facilitate the accumulation of clinicopathological findings regarding this issue, we here present a selected series of 11 cases that clinically developed psychotic disorder (n = 7; age at onset: 41-75 years),…

  • Application of Light-Sheet Mesoscopy to Image Host-Pathogen Interactions in Intact Organs
    by Eliana Battistella on July 1, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a disease caused by the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei that affects the central nervous system (CNS) during the chronic stage of the infection, inducing neuroinflammation, coma, and death if left untreated. However, little is known about the structural change happening in the brain as result of the infection. So far, infection-induced neuroinflammation has been observed with conventional methods, such as immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy,…

  • Somatostatin interneurons inhibit excitatory transmission mediated by astrocytic GABAB and presynaptic GABAB and adenosine A1 receptors in the hippocampus
    by Weida Shen on July 1, 2022 at 10:00 am

    GABAergic network activity has been established to be involved in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions. Extensive studies have corroborated that GABAergic network activity regulates excitatory synaptic networks by activating presynaptic GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B) Rs). It is well documented that astrocytes express GABA(B) Rs and respond to GABAergic network activity. However, little is known about whether astrocytic GABA(B) Rs regulate excitatory synaptic transmission…

  • Lymphotoxin-alpha expression in the meninges causes lymphoid tissue formation and neurodegeneration
    by Rachel E James Bates on July 1, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Organised meningeal immune cell infiltrates are suggested to play an important role in cortical grey matter pathology in the multiple sclerosis brain, but the mechanisms involved are as yet unresolved. Lymphotoxin-alpha plays a key role in lymphoid organ development and cellular cytotoxicity in the immune system and its expression is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of naïve and progressive multiple sclerosis patients and post-mortem meningeal tissue. Here we show that persistently increased…

  • The impact of temozolomide and lonafarnib on the stemness marker expression of glioblastoma cells in multicellular spheroids
    by Pinaki S Nakod on June 30, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant brain tumor with poor prognosis. The GBM microenvironment is highly heterogeneous and is composed of many cell types including astrocytes and endothelial cells (ECs) along with tumor cells, which are responsible for heightened resistance to standard chemotherapeutic drugs such as Temozolomide (TMZ). Here, we investigated how drug treatments impact stemness marker expression of GBM cells in multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) models. Co- and…

  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Application and Its Therapeutic Mechanisms in Intracerebral Hemorrhage
    by Guoqiang Yang on June 30, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a common lethal subtype of stroke accounting for nearly 10-15% of the total stroke disease and affecting two million people worldwide, has a high mortality and disability rate and, thus, a major socioeconomic burden. However, there is no effective treatment available currently. The role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine is well known owing to the simplicity of acquisition from various sources, low immunogenicity, adaptation to the autogenic…

  • The Long-Term Stability of Intracortical Microstimulation and the Foreign Body Response Are Layer Dependent
    by Morgan E Urdaneta on June 30, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the somatosensory cortex (S1) can restore sensory function in patients with paralysis. Studies assessing the stability of ICMS have reported heterogeneous responses across electrodes and over time, potentially hindering the implementation and translatability of these technologies. The foreign body response (FBR) and the encapsulating glial scar have been associated with a decay in chronic performance of implanted electrodes. Moreover, the morphology,…

  • Therapeutic Potential of Astrocyte Transplantation
    by Nataly Hastings on June 30, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Cell transplantation is an attractive treatment strategy for a variety of brain disorders, as it promises to replenish lost functions and rejuvenate the brain. In particular, transplantation of astrocytes has come into light recently as a therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); moreover, grafting of astrocytes also showed positive results in models of other conditions ranging from neurodegenerative diseases of older age to traumatic injury and stroke. Despite clear differences in…

  • Complement activation mainly mediates the association of heart rate variability and cognitive impairment in adults with obstructive sleep apnea without dementia
    by Song Xue on June 29, 2022 at 10:00 am

    CONCLUSIONS: Lower SDANN index and PNN50 during wakefulness and SDNN and PNN50 during sleep periods were found in OSA patients with MCI, suggesting potential vulnerability to autonomic and parasympathetic dysfunction. Complement activation, AD biomarkers and WMH might partially mediate and interact the influence of HRV on cognitive impairment in OSA patients.

  • A Survey of the Metabolic Landscape of the Developing Cerebellum at Single-Cell Resolution
    by James R Krycer on June 29, 2022 at 10:00 am

    The use of cell-culture models to investigate development and disease of the cerebellum is a recent advance, facilitated by the discovery that patterning of precursors is capable of giving rise to cells with specific neuronal identity. Pluripotent stem cell-derived organoids, which exhibit self-organisational characteristics reminiscent of early cerebellar tissue, present a number of challenges including recapitulation of conditions resembling the mature brain. An understanding of the processes…

  • Adenosine and astrocytes determine the developmental dynamics of spike timing-dependent plasticity in the somatosensory cortex
    by Irene Martínez-Gallego on June 29, 2022 at 10:00 am

    During development, critical periods of synaptic plasticity facilitate the reordering and refinement of neural connections, allowing the definitive synaptic circuits responsible for correct adult physiology to be established. The L4-L2/3 synapses in the somatosensory cortex (S1) exhibit a presynaptic form of spike timing-dependent long-term depression (t-LTD) that probably fulfills a role in synaptic refinement. This t-LTD persists until the 4^(rd) postnatal week in mice, disappearing…

  • Protein kinase C-β distinctly regulates blood-brain barrier-forming capacity of Brain Microvascular endothelial cells and outgrowth endothelial cells
    by Rais Reskiawan A Kadir on June 28, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) provide an endogenous repair mechanism and thus maintain endothelial barrier integrity. As inhibition of protein kinase C-β (PKC-β) activity has been shown to attenuate endothelial damage in various pathological conditions including hyperglycaemia and ischaemic injury, the present study comparatively assessed the effect of LY333531, a PKC-β inhibitor, on the cerebral barrier integrity formed by OECs or human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). To…

  • Leveraging the preformed fibril model to distinguish between alpha-synuclein inclusion- and nigrostriatal degeneration-associated immunogenicity
    by Anna C Stoll on June 28, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Neuroinflammation has become a well-accepted pathologic hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, it remains unclear whether inflammation, triggered by α-syn aggregation and/or degeneration, contributes to the progression of the disease. Studies examining neuroinflammation in PD are unable to distinguish between Lewy body-associated inflammation and degeneration-associated inflammation, as both pathologies are present simultaneously. Intrastriatal and intranigral injections of…

  • The promise of the TGF-β superfamily as a therapeutic target for Parkinson’s disease
    by Karampetsou Mantia on June 28, 2022 at 10:00 am

    A large body of evidence underscore the regulatory role of TGF-β superfamily in the central nervous system. Components of the TGF-β superfamily modulate key events during embryonic brain development and adult brain tissue injury repair. With respect to Parkinson’s disease (PD), TGF-ß signaling pathways are implicated in the differentiation, maintenance and synaptic function of the dopaminergic neurons, as well as in processes related to the activation state of astrocytes and microglia. In vitro…

  • Engrafted glial progenitor cells yield long-term integration and sensory improvement in aged mice
    by Zhiqi Yang on June 28, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Aging causes astrocyte morphological degeneration and functional deficiency, which impairs neuronal functions. Until now, whether age-induced neuronal deficiency could be alleviated by engraftment of glial progenitor cell (GPC) derived astrocytes remained unknown. In the current study, GPCs were generated from embryonic cortical neural stem cells in vitro and transplanted into the brains of aged mice. Their integration and intervention effects in the aged brain were examined 12 months after…