Ependymal cells – Just Now

  • Single-nucleus RNA sequencing of midbrain blood-brain barrier cells in schizophrenia reveals subtle transcriptional changes with overall preservation of cellular proportions and phenotypes
    by Sofía Puvogel on October 3, 2022 at 10:00 am

    The midbrain is an extensively studied brain region in schizophrenia, in view of its reported dopamine pathophysiology and neuroimmune changes associated with this disease. Besides the dopaminergic system, the midbrain contains other cell types that may be involved in schizophrenia pathophysiology. The neurovascular hypothesis of schizophrenia postulates that both the neurovasculature structure and the functioning of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are compromised in schizophrenia. In the present…

  • AQP4, Astrogenesis, and Hydrocephalus: A New Neurological Perspective
    by Leandro Castañeyra-Ruiz on September 23, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a cerebral glial marker that labels ependymal cells and astrocytes’ endfeet and is the main water channel responsible for the parenchymal fluid balance. However, in brain development, AQP4 is a marker of glial stem cells and plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of pediatric hydrocephalus. Gliogenesis characterization has been hampered by a lack of biomarkers for precursor and intermediate stages and a deeper understanding of hydrocephalus etiology is needed. This…

  • Resolving primary pathomechanisms driving idiopathic-like spinal curvature using a new katnb1 scoliosis model
    by Anne Meyer-Miner on September 15, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) refers to abnormal spinal curvatures that occur in the absence of vertebral or neuromuscular defects. IS accounts for 80% of human spinal deformity, afflicts ∼3% of children worldwide, yet pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. A key role for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis in zebrafish spine development has been identified. Specifically, defects in cilia motility of brain ependymal cells (EC), CSF flow, and/or Reissner fiber (RF) assembly are observed to…

  • Case report: Infratentorial Embryonal Tumor with Abundant Neuropil and True Rosettes (ETANTR) in an 8-month-old Maine Coon
    by Greta Foiani on September 12, 2022 at 10:00 am

    An 8-month-old female Main Coon with a history of recurrent behavioral changes and anorexia was presented with sternal recumbency and depression. Within 5 days, the cat progressively worsened with symptoms of stupor and coma and was euthanized. At post-mortem examination, a solid, grayish infratentorial mass located in the midline rostrally to the cerebellum, was observed. Histologically, highly cellular clusters of small-to-medium undifferentiated cells were intermingled with paucicellular…

  • Ependymal and Neural Stem Cells of Adult Molly Fish (Poecilia sphenops, Valenciennes, 1846) Brain: Histomorphometry, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Studies
    by Doaa M Mokhtar on September 9, 2022 at 10:00 am

    This study was conducted on 16 adult specimens of molly fish (Poecilia sphenops) to investigate ependymal cells (ECs) and their role in neurogenesis using ultrastructural examination and immunohistochemistry. The ECs lined the ventral and lateral surfaces of the optic ventricle and their processes extended through the tectal laminae and ended at the surface of the tectum as a subpial end-foot. Two cell types of ECs were identified: cuboidal non-ciliated (5.68 ± 0.84/100 μm²) and columnar…

  • Association between subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced hydrocephalus and hydromyelia: pathophysiological changes developed in an experimental model
    by Anas Abdallah on September 5, 2022 at 10:00 am

    CONCLUSIONS: Subependymal basement membrane destruction, blood cell accumulation on it, ependymal cell desquamation, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) secretion, and increased ICP in the central channel that causes hydromyelia. When these pathological changes are chronically apparent, they may reflect on CSF pathways and cause permanent SAIH. Preventing long-time SAH-induced hydromyelia is believed to reduce the high rate of treatment-requiring SAIH.

  • Brain atlas for glycoprotein hormone receptors at single-transcript level
    by Vitaly Ryu on September 2, 2022 at 10:00 am

    There is increasing evidence that anterior pituitary hormones, traditionally thought to have unitary functions in regulating single endocrine targets, act on multiple somatic tissues, such as bone, fat, and liver. There is also emerging evidence for anterior pituitary hormone action on brain receptors in mediating central neural and peripheral somatic functions. Here, we have created the most comprehensive neuroanatomical atlas on the expression of TSHR, LHCGR, and FSHR. We have used RNAscope, a…

  • Transduction characteristics of alternative adeno-associated virus serotypes in the cat brain by intracisternal delivery
    by Jacqueline E Hunter on August 29, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Multiple studies have examined the transduction characteristics of different AAV serotypes in the mouse brain, where they can exhibit significantly different patterns of transduction. The pattern of transduction also varies with the route of administration. Much less information exists for the transduction characteristics in large-brained animals. Large animal models have brains that are closer in size and organization to the human brain, such as being gyrencephalic compared to the…

  • DNGR-1-tracing marks an ependymal cell subset with damage-responsive neural stem cell potential
    by Bruno Frederico on August 23, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Cells with latent stem ability can contribute to mammalian tissue regeneration after damage. Whether the central nervous system (CNS) harbors such cells remains controversial. Here, we report that DNGR-1 lineage tracing in mice identifies an ependymal cell subset, wherein resides latent regenerative potential. We demonstrate that DNGR-1-lineage-traced ependymal cells arise early in embryogenesis (E11.5) and subsequently spread across the lining of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled compartments to…

  • Supratentorial extra-axial RELA fusion-positive ependymoma misdiagnosed as meningioma by intraoperative histological and cytological examinations: a case report
    by Mayumi Akaki Nagayasu on August 19, 2022 at 10:00 am

    CONCLUSION: Owing to its unusual location, dura-attached supratentorial extra-axial ependymomas are frequently misdiagnosed as meningiomas. Neuropathologists should take great precaution in intraoperatively diagnosing this rare subtype of ependymoma to avoid misdiagnosis of the lesion as other common dura-attached tumors.

  • Purification and Immunostaining of Mouse Ependymal Ciliary Shafts
    by Kai Hao on August 18, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Cilia and flagella are microtubule-based hair-like organelles protruding from the surface of most eukaryotic cells, and play essential roles in cell locomotion, left-right asymmetry, embryo development, and tissue homeostasis. With isolated cilia and flagella, great progress has been made in understanding the composition, structure, and function of cilia. However, the current cilia/flagella isolation methods are deficient in the integrity or productivity of purified cilia when applied to…

  • Flow blockage disrupts cilia-driven fluid transport in the epileptic brain
    by Regina J Faubel on August 18, 2022 at 10:00 am

    A carpet of ependymal motile cilia lines the brain ventricular system, forming a network of flow channels and barriers that pattern cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow at the surface. This CSF transport system is evolutionary conserved, but its physiological function remains unknown. Here we investigated its potential role in epilepsy with studies focused on CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD), a neurodevelopmental disorder with early-onset epilepsy refractory to seizure medications and the most common…

  • The Properties and Functions of Glial Cell Types of the Hypothalamic Median Eminence
    by Richard W Clayton on August 15, 2022 at 10:00 am

    The median eminence (ME) is part of the neuroendocrine system (NES) that functions as a crucial interface between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The ME contains many non-neuronal cell types, including oligodendrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), tanycytes, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia and other immune cells, which may be involved in the regulation of NES function. For example, in mice, ablation of tanycytes (a special class of ependymal glia with stem cell-like functions)…

  • Hydrocephalus in Nfix-/- Mice Is Underpinned by Changes in Ependymal Cell Physiology
    by Danyon Harkins on August 12, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Nuclear factor one X (NFIX) is a transcription factor required for normal ependymal development. Constitutive loss of Nfix in mice (Nfix^(-/-)) is associated with hydrocephalus and sloughing of the dorsal ependyma within the lateral ventricles. Previous studies have implicated NFIX in the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding for factors essential to ependymal development. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning hydrocephalus in Nfix^(-/-) mice are unknown. To…

  • Organization of the ventricular zone of the cerebellum
    by Gabriela B Gómez-González on August 12, 2022 at 10:00 am

    The roof of the fourth ventricle (4V) is located on the ventral part of the cerebellum, a region with abundant vascularization and cell heterogeneity that includes tanycyte-like cells that define a peculiar glial niche known as ventromedial cord. This cord is composed of a group of biciliated cells that run along the midline, contacting the ventricular lumen and the subventricular zone. Although the complex morphology of the glial cells composing the cord resembles to tanycytes, cells which are…