Ependymal cells – Just Now

  • OLIG2 immunolabeling in feline ependymoma
    by Elena A Demeter on June 28, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Ependymoma, one of the most common gliomas in cats, occurs most often in the lateral and third ventricles and has variable histologic patterns that often form rosettes and pseudorosettes. Oligodendrocyte transcription factor (OLIG2) is expressed in oligodendrocyte precursor cells and mature oligodendrocytes. Although widely used as a diagnostic marker for most gliomas, OLIG2 is reported to have minimal immunolabeling in ependymomas. Here we characterize the OLIG2 immunolabeling pattern in 19…

  • “Ependymal-in” gradient of thalamic damage in progressive multiple sclerosis
    by R Magliozzi on June 24, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Leptomeningeal and perivenular infiltrates are important contributors to cortical grey matter damage and disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). While perivenular inflammation induces vasculocentric lesions, leptomeningeal involvement follows a subpial ‘surface-in’ gradient. To determine whether similar gradient of damage occurs in deep grey matter nuclei, we examined the dorsomedial thalamic nuclei and CSF samples from 41 post-mortem secondary progressive MS cases compared to 5…

  • Leptomeningeal disease and tumor dissemination in a murine diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma model: implications for the study of the tumor-cerebrospinal fluid-ependymal microenvironment
    by Shelei Pan on June 23, 2022 at 10:00 am

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report CSF pathway tumor dissemination associated with subependymal tumor in an animal model of DIPG and is representative of CSF dissemination seen clinically. Understanding the CSF-tumor-ependymal microenvironment has significant implications for treatment of DIPG through targeting mechanisms of tumor spread within the CSF pathways.

  • Radial Glia and Neuronal-like Ependymal Cells Are Present within the Spinal Cord of the Trunk (Body) in the Leopard Gecko (Eublepharis macularius)
    by Sarah V Donato on June 23, 2022 at 10:00 am

    As is the case for many lizards, leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) can self-detach a portion of their tail to escape predation, and then regenerate a replacement complete with a spinal cord. Previous research has shown that endogenous populations of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) reside within the spinal cord of the original tail. In response to tail loss, these NSPCs are activated and contribute to regeneration. Here, we investigate whether similar populations of NSPCs are found…

  • An ultrastructural study of the deep pineal gland of the Sprague Dawley rat using transmission and serial block face scanning electron microscopy: cell types, barriers, and innervation
    by Morten Møller on June 23, 2022 at 10:00 am

    The morphology of the deep pineal gland of the Sprague Dawley rat was investigated by serial block face scanning electron microscopy. Cells were three-dimensionally (3-D) reconstructed using the software Fiji TrackEM. The deep pineal gland consisted of 2-5 layers of electron-lucent pinealocytes, with a euchromatic nucleus, endowed with one or two processes. Laterally, the deep pineal merged with the habenula and the stria medullaris thalami, via an intermediate area containing cells with more…

  • Involvement of Phytochemical-Encapsulated Nanoparticles’ Interaction with Cellular Signalling in the Amelioration of Benign and Malignant Brain Tumours
    by Sidharth Mehan on June 10, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Brain tumours have unresolved challenges that include delay prognosis and lower patient survival rate. The increased understanding of the molecular pathways underlying cancer progression has aided in developing various anticancer medications. Brain cancer is the most malignant and invasive type of cancer, with several subtypes. According to the WHO, they are classified as ependymal tumours, chordomas, gangliocytomas, medulloblastomas, oligodendroglial tumours, diffuse astrocytomas, and other…

  • Morphology of the distal tip of the spinal cord in Alligator mississippiensis
    by Skye Greer on June 10, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Secondary neurulation is a common feature of vertebrate development, which in non-mammalian and non-anuran vertebrates, results in the formation of a caudal spinal cord. The present study was undertaken to describe the terminal end of the caudal spinal cord in a crocodylian, a group chosen for their unique status of a living-tailed archosaur. The caudal spinal cord of Alligator mississippiensis terminates near the intervertebral joint between the fourth and fifth terminal vertebrae. Prior to…

  • Quantifying cilia beat frequency using high-speed video microscopy: Assessing frame rate requirements when imaging different ciliated tissues
    by Luke Scopulovic on June 9, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Motile cilia are found in numerous locations throughout our body and play a critical role in various physiological processes. The most commonly used method to assess cilia motility is to quantify cilia beat frequency (CBF) via video microscopy. However, a large heterogeneity exists within published literature regarding the framerate used to image cilia motility for calculating CBF. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal frame rate required to image cilia motility for CBF assessment,…

  • RBP-J deficiency promoted the proliferation and differentiation of CD133-positive cells in both in vitro and in vivo studies
    by Xin Ye on June 6, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Although Notch signalling pathway could control the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs), it is largely unknown about the effect of Notch signalling pathway on the neurogenesis of CD133-positive cells. By using the primary cultured ependymal cells and the transgenic mouse, we found that CD133 immunoreactivity was exclusively localized in the ependymal layer of ventricles; moreover, most CD133-positive cells were co-labelled with Nestin. In addition, recombination signal…

  • Genuine lethal infection of a wood pigeon (Columba palumbus) with high pathogenicity avian influenza H5N1, clade 2.3.4.4b, in Germany, 2022
    by Martin Peters on May 20, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Despite the increasing frequency of avian influenza (AI) cases in wild birds in Europe during the last decade, doves and pigeons were not recognized to be part of the AI epidemiology. Here we describe a natural, lethal HPAIV infection of subtype H5N1, clade 2.3.4.4b, in a wood pigeon (Columba palumbus) in Germany, 2022. The animal was housed in a bird sanctuary that suffered an HPAI-outbreak with multiple bird species affected. The pigeon’s post mortem findings were dominated by an acute…

  • Centrin 2: A Novel Marker of Mature and Neoplastic Human Astrocytes
    by Elisa Degl’Innocenti on May 16, 2022 at 10:00 am

    As microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs), centrosomes play a pivotal role in cell division, neurodevelopment and neuronal maturation. Among centrosomal proteins, centrin-2 (CETN2) also contributes to DNA repair mechanisms which are fundamental to prevent genomic instability during neural stem cell pool expansion. Nevertheless, the expression profile of CETN2 in human neural stem cells and their progeny is currently unknown. To address this question, we interrogated a platform of human…

  • Enhancer selection dictates gene expression responses in remote organs during tissue regeneration
    by Fei Sun on May 5, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Acute trauma stimulates local repair mechanisms but can also impact structures distant from the injury, for example through the activity of circulating factors. To study the responses of remote tissues during tissue regeneration, we profiled transcriptomes of zebrafish brains after experimental cardiac damage. We found that the transcription factor gene cebpd was upregulated remotely in brain ependymal cells as well as kidney tubular cells, in addition to its local induction in epicardial cells….

  • Functions of Stress-Induced Lipid Droplets in the Nervous System
    by Eva Islimye on May 2, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Lipid droplets are highly dynamic intracellular organelles that store neutral lipids such as cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols. They have recently emerged as key stress response components in many different cell types. Lipid droplets in the nervous system are mostly observed in vivo in glia, ependymal cells and microglia. They tend to become more numerous in these cell types and can also form in neurons as a consequence of ageing or stresses involving redox imbalance and lipotoxicity….

  • Cellular Distribution of Brain Aquaporins and Their Contribution to Cerebrospinal Fluid Homeostasis and Hydrocephalus
    by José Luis Trillo-Contreras on April 23, 2022 at 10:00 am

    Brain aquaporins facilitate the movement of water between the four water compartments: blood, cerebrospinal fluid, interstitial fluid, and intracellular fluid. This work analyzes the expression of the four most abundant aquaporins (AQPs) (AQP1, AQP4, AQP9, and AQP11) in the brains of mice and discuss their contribution to hydrocephalus. We analyzed available data from single-cell RNA sequencing of the central nervous system of mice to describe the expression of aquaporins and compare their…

  • Histology, Glial Cells
    by Parker E. Ludwig on January 1, 2022 at 11:00 am

    Many glial cells provide support for an essential nervous system function. In addition to providing support for neurons, glial cells aid in the maintenance of homeostasis, and form myelin. As a whole, glial cells are the most abundant cells in the central nervous system. The most notable glial cells include oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, astrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells. Most glial cells are capable of mitotic division.