Ependymal cells – Just Now

  • Physiotherapy Strategies for Redefining Recovery in a Patient With Grade II Ependymoma: A Case Report
    by Krutika Dhawde on May 24, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Neuroepithelial tumors known as ependymomas can develop from cortical rests, the central canal of the spinal cord, or the ependymal cells of the cerebral ventricles. Ependymomas may arise anywhere along the neuraxis. Here, we present a 40-year-old male, a known case of grade II ependymomas, with a chief complaint of bilateral lower limb weakness and loss of sensation in the bilateral lower limb for 20 days. He started facing difficulties in performing activities such as walking, toileting…

  • A method for selective and efficient isolation of gray matter astrocytes from the spinal cord of adult mice
    by Ryoma Iwasaki on May 22, 2024 at 10:00 am

    A growing body of evidence indicates intra- and inter-regional heterogeneity of astrocytes in the brain. However, because of a lack of an efficient method for isolating astrocytes from the spinal cord, little is known about how much spinal cord astrocytes are heterogeneous in adult mice. In this study, we developed a new method for isolating spinal astrocytes from adult mice using a cold-active protease from Bacillus licheniformis with an astrocyte cell surface antigen-2 (ACSA-2) antibody. Using…

  • Quinolinic acid links kidney injury to brain toxicity
    by Afaf Saliba on May 20, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Kidney dysfunction often leads to neurological impairment, yet the complex kidney-brain relationship remains elusive. We employed spatial and bulk metabolomics to investigate a mouse model of rapid kidney failure induced by mouse double minute 2 ( Mdm2) conditional deletion in the kidney tubules to interrogate kidney and brain metabolism. Pathway enrichment analysis of focused plasma metabolomics panel pinpointed tryptophan metabolism as the most altered pathway with kidney failure. Spatial…

  • BCOR Positive Central Nervous System Neuroepithelial Tumor Masquerading as a Meningioma
    by Sana Ahuja on May 14, 2024 at 10:00 am

    The central nervous system tumor with BCL-6 interacting corepressor internal tandem duplication (BCOR-ITD) is a molecularly defined entity with an internal tandem duplication in exon 15 of the BCOR gene. It is histologically characterized by a solid pattern with spindle-shaped cells and a dense capillary network. Very few cases of this rare entity have been reported till date. We present a case of BCOR-positive CNS tumor in a 3-year-old child who presented with scalp swelling. A differential…

  • Extraneural metastatic ependymoma: distant metastasis to the pleura, lungs, lymph nodes and bone
    by Mina Guirguis on May 10, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Ependymomas are neuroepithelial tumours arising from ependymal cells surrounding the cerebral ventricles that rarely metastasise to extraneural structures. This spread has been reported to occur to the lungs, lymph nodes, liver and bone. We describe the case of a patient with recurrent CNS WHO grade 3 ependymoma with extraneural metastatic disease. He was treated with multiple surgical resections, radiation therapy and salvage chemotherapy for his extraneural metastasis to the lungs, bone,…

  • Glioma
    by Michael Weller on May 9, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Gliomas are primary brain tumours that are thought to develop from neural stem or progenitor cells that carry tumour-initiating genetic alterations. Based on microscopic appearance and molecular characteristics, they are classified according to the WHO classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumours and graded into CNS WHO grades 1-4 from a low to high grade of malignancy. Diffusely infiltrating gliomas in adults comprise three tumour types with distinct natural course of disease,…

  • Loss of Katnal2 leads to ependymal ciliary hyperfunction and autism-related phenotypes in mice
    by Ryeonghwa Kang on May 8, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently accompany macrocephaly, which often involves hydrocephalic enlargement of brain ventricles. Katnal2 is a microtubule-regulatory protein strongly linked to ASD, but it remains unclear whether Katnal2 knockout (KO) in mice leads to microtubule- and ASD-related molecular, synaptic, brain, and behavioral phenotypes. We found that Katnal2-KO mice display ASD-like social communication deficits and age-dependent progressive ventricular enlargements. The latter…

  • Ependymal cells undergo astrocyte-like reactivity in response to neuroinflammation
    by Adam M R Groh on May 4, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Ependymal cells form a specialized brain-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) interface and regulate local CSF microcirculation. It is becoming increasingly recognized that ependymal cells assume a reactive state in response to aging and disease, including conditions involving hypoxia, hydrocephalus, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation. Yet what transcriptional signatures govern these reactive states and whether this reactivity shares any similarities with classical descriptions of glial reactivity…

  • Reversal of Postnatal Brain Astrocytes and Ependymal Cells towards a Progenitor Phenotype in Culture
    by Dimitrios Kakogiannis on April 26, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Astrocytes and ependymal cells have been reported to be able to switch from a mature cell identity towards that of a neural stem/progenitor cell. Astrocytes are widely scattered in the brain where they exert multiple functions and are routinely targeted for in vitro and in vivo reprogramming. Ependymal cells serve more specialized functions, lining the ventricles and the central canal, and are multiciliated, epithelial-like cells that, in the spinal cord, act as bi-potent progenitors in response…

  • Treatment of Syringomyelia Characterized by Focal Dilatation of the Central Canal Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Stem Cells
    by Mo Li on April 5, 2024 at 10:00 am

    CONCLUSION: Cell transplantation can promote cavity shrinkage and regulate the local inflammatory environment. Moreover, the proliferation of ependymal cells may indicate the activation of endogenous stem cells, which is important for the regeneration and repair of spinal cord injury.

  • The novel vaccines targeting interleukin-1 receptor type I
    by Yanzhao Zhou on March 30, 2024 at 10:00 am

    CONCLUSION: The vaccines targeting the IL-1R1 would be a novel and promising treatment for the atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction.

  • Adult Neoneurogenesis and Oligodendrogenesis in Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review of Human and Animal Studies
    by Andreas Liampas on March 27, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Introduction: The subventricular zone promotes remyelination through activation differentiation of oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs) into mature oligodendrocytes and thus in the adult brain. In multiple sclerosis (MS) this regenerative capability is halted resulting in neurodegeneration. We aimed to systematically search and synthesize evidence on mechanisms and phenomena associated with subventricular zone (SVZ) dysfunction in MS. Materials and Methods: Our…

  • Subventricular zone stem cell niche injury is associated with intestinal perforation in preterm infants and predicts future motor impairment
    by Adrian A Epstein on March 27, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Brain injury is highly associated with preterm birth. Complications of prematurity, including spontaneous or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)-associated intestinal perforations, are linked to lifelong neurologic impairment, yet the mechanisms are poorly understood. Early diagnosis of preterm brain injuries remains a significant challenge. Here, we identified subventricular zone echogenicity (SVE) on cranial ultrasound in preterm infants following intestinal perforations. The development of SVE…

  • Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Failure and Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
    by Kyle M Rei on March 19, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS) are used to manage hydrocephalus but suffer from high failure rates. Our objectives were to (1) conduct a meta-analysis to objectively weigh this conflicting evidence, and (2) conduct a systematic review compiling and synthesizing what is known about the association between CSF proteins and shunt failure. A literature search was performed in compliance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The Embase, PubMed, and…

  • Implications of DNA Methylation Classification in Diagnosing Ependymoma
    by Eiji Abe on March 13, 2024 at 10:00 am

    CONCLUSIONS: Although adding DNA methylation classification to conventional diagnostic methods may be helpful, the diagnosis in some cases remains undetermined. This may affect decision-making regarding treatment strategies and follow-up. Further investigations are required to improve the diagnostic accuracy of these tumors.