Oligodendrocytes – Just Now

  • Oligodendrocyte-derived laminin-gamma1 regulates the blood-brain barrier and CNS myelination in mice
    by Minkyung Kang on April 18, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Although oligodendrocytes (OLs) synthesize laminin-γ1, the most widely used γ subunit, its functional significance in the CNS remains unknown. To answer this important question, we generated a conditional knockout mouse line with laminin-γ1 deficiency in OL lineage cells (γ1-OKO). γ1-OKO mice exhibit weakness/paralysis and die by post-natal day 33. Additionally, they develop blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the cortex and striatum. Subsequent studies reveal decreased major facilitator…

  • Monoclonal antibody therapies for aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease
    by Nanthaya Tisavipat on April 17, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Monoclonal antibody therapies mark the new era of targeted treatment for relapse prevention in aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-immunoglobulin G (IgG)-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4-IgG+NMOSD). For over a decade, rituximab, an anti-CD20 B-cell-depleting agent, had been the most effectiveness treatment for AQP4-IgG+NMOSD. Tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor, was also observed to be effective. In 2019, several randomized, placebo-controlled trials were completed that demonstrated…

  • Structural, Functional, and Genetic Changes Surrounding Electrodes Implanted in the Brain
    by Bhavna Gupta on April 17, 2024 at 10:00 am

    ConspectusImplantable neurotechnology enables monitoring and stimulating of the brain signals responsible for performing cognitive, motor, and sensory tasks. Electrode arrays implanted in the brain are increasingly used in the clinic to treat a variety of sources of neurological diseases and injuries. However, the implantation of a foreign body typically initiates a tissue response characterized by physical disruption of vasculature and the neuropil as well as the initiation of inflammation and…

  • Life-Threatening MOG Antibody-Associated Hemorrhagic ADEM With Elevated CSF IL-6
    by Akash Virupakshaiah on April 17, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is one characteristic manifestation of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD). A previously healthy man presented with retro-orbital headache and urinary retention 14 days after Tdap vaccination. Brain and spine MRI suggested a CNS demyelinating process. Despite treatment with IV steroids, he deteriorated, manifesting hemiparesis and later impaired consciousness, requiring intubation. A repeat brain MRI demonstrated new…

  • Human oligodendrocyte-like cell differentiation is promoted by TSPO-mediated endogenous steroidogenesis
    by Chiara Tremolanti on April 17, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Mature oligodendrocytes (OLs) arise from oligodendrocyte precursor cells that, in case of demyelination, are recruited at the lesion site to remyelinate the axons and therefore restore the transmission of nerve impulses. It has been widely documented that exogenously administered steroid molecules are potent inducers of myelination. However, little is known about how neurosteroids produced de novo by OLs can impact this process. Here, we employed a human OL precursor cell line to investigate the…

  • Mitochondrial calcium signaling in non-neuronal cells: Implications for Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis
    by Darpan Raghav on April 17, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Mitochondrial dysregulation is pivotal in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Calcium governs vital mitochondrial processes impacting energy conversion, oxidative stress, and cell death signaling. Disruptions in mitochondrial calcium ((m)Ca^(2+)) handling induce calcium overload and trigger the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore, ensuing energy deprivation and resulting in AD-related neuronal cell death. However, the role of (m)Ca^(2+) in non-neuronal cells (microglia,…

  • Vesicle Fusion in Oligodendrocyte Maturation and Myelination
    by Madison T Hupp on April 17, 2024 at 10:00 am

    No abstract

  • TIMP-3 Alleviates White Matter Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice by Promoting Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell Maturation
    by Peiwen Guo on April 16, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with high mortality and disability rates, and secondary white matter injury is an important cause of poor prognosis. However, whether brain capillary pericytes can directly affect the differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and subsequently affect white matter injury repair has still been revealed. This study was designed to investigate the effect of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) for OPC…

  • 7T MP2RAGE for cortical myelin segmentation: Impact of aging
    by Susanne G Mueller on April 16, 2024 at 10:00 am

    CONCLUSION: The MP2RAGE derived UNI, T1map and RATIO contrasts can be used to identify dGM and sGM. Considering the close relationship between cortical myelo- and cytoarchitecture, the findings reported here indicate that this new technique might provide new insights into the nature of cortical GM loss in physiological and pathological conditions.

  • Simultaneous isolation of intact brain cells and cell-specific extracellular vesicles from cryopreserved Alzheimer’s disease cortex
    by Mikhail Melnik on April 16, 2024 at 10:00 am

    BACKGROUND: The neuronal and gliaI populations within the brain are tightly interwoven, making isolation and study of large populations of a single cell type from brain tissue a major technical challenge. Concurrently, cell-type specific extracellular vesicles (EVs) hold enormous diagnostic and therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

  • Erratum: Katanov et al., “N-Wasp Regulates Oligodendrocyte Myelination”
    on April 16, 2024 at 10:00 am

    No abstract

  • Navigating the Uncharted Territory of Pediatric-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in a 12-Year-Old Male: A Case Study
    by Han Grezenko on April 15, 2024 at 10:00 am

    This case report presents an atypical instance of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) in a 12-year-old male, a demographic less commonly affected by this condition. The patient’s clinical course was marked by severe and progressive symptoms, including lower limb weakness and loss of bowel/bladder control, diverging from the typical relapsing-remitting pattern observed in pediatric MS. Despite initial resistance to high-dose steroid treatment, his condition was ultimately stabilized through…

  • A Comparative Review of Typical and Atypical Optic Neuritis: Advancements in Treatments, Diagnostics, and Prognosis
    by Noah J Spillers on April 15, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Optic neuritis (ON) is a debilitating condition that through various mechanisms, including inflammation or demyelination of the optic nerve, can result in partial or total permanent vision loss if left untreated. Accurate diagnosis and promptly initiated treatment are imperative related to the potential of permanent loss of vision if left untreated, which can lead to a significant reduction in the quality of life in affected patients. ON is subtyped as “typical” or “atypical” based on underlying…

  • Oligodendrocytes: Myelination, Plasticity, and Axonal Support
    by Mikael Simons on April 15, 2024 at 10:00 am

    The myelination of axons has evolved to enable fast and efficient transduction of electrical signals in the vertebrate nervous system. Acting as an electric insulator, the myelin sheath is a multilamellar membrane structure around axonal segments generated by the spiral wrapping and subsequent compaction of oligodendroglial plasma membranes. These oligodendrocytes are metabolically active and remain functionally connected to the subjacent axon via cytoplasmic-rich myelinic channels for movement…

  • Isolation and Culture of Mouse Primary Microglia and Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells
    by Zihao Li on April 15, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are critical glia subsets in the central nervous system (CNS) and are actively engaged in a body of diseases, such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, etc. Microglia and OPC serve as compelling tools for the study of CNS diseases as well as the repair and damage of myelin sheath in vitro. In this protocol, we summarized a method which is capable of using the same batch of new-born mice to isolate and culture microglia and OPCs….