Oligodendrocytes – Just Now

  • A Novel Approach to Increase Glial Cell Populations in Brain Microphysiological Systems
    by Itzy E Morales Pantoja on December 8, 2023 at 11:00 am

    Brain microphysiological systems (bMPS) recapitulate human brain cellular architecture and functionality more closely than traditional monolayer cultures and have become increasingly relevant for the study of neurological function in health and disease. Existing 3D brain models vary in reflecting the relative populations of different cell types present in the human brain. Most models consist mainly of neurons, while glial cells represent a smaller portion of the cell populations. Here, by means…

  • Oligodeoxynucleotide IMT504: Effects on Central Nervous System Repair Following Demyelination
    by Patricia A Mathieu on December 8, 2023 at 11:00 am

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) disease characterized by demyelination resulting from oligodendrocyte loss and inflammation. Cuprizone (CPZ) administration experimentally replicates MS pattern-III lesions, generating an inflammatory response through microgliosis and astrogliosis. Potentially remyelinating agents include oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) with a specific immunomodulatory sequence consisting of the active motif PyNTTTTGT. In this work, the…

  • An engineered Fc fusion protein that targets antigen-specific T cells and autoantibodies mitigates autoimmune disease
    by Mathangi Janakiraman on December 7, 2023 at 11:00 am

    Current effective therapies for autoimmune diseases rely on systemic immunomodulation that broadly affects all T and/or B cell responses. An ideal therapeutic approach would combine autoantigen-specific targeting of both T and B cell effector functions, including efficient removal of pathogenic autoantibodies. Albeit multiple strategies to induce T cell tolerance in an autoantigen-specific manner have been proposed, therapeutic removal of autoantibodies remains a significant challenge. Here, we…

  • Guidelines for pharmacotherapy in Alzheimer’s disease – A primer on FDA-approved drugs
    by Ashvin Varadharajan on December 7, 2023 at 11:00 am

    The growing prevalence of dementia makes it important for us to better understand its pathophysiology and treatment modalities, to improve the quality of life of patients and caregivers. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease, is the most common form of amnestic dementia in the geriatric population. Pathophysiology of AD is widely attributed to aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins. Initial treatment modalities aimed to increase brain…

  • Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Disease (MOGAD) Following Adenovirus Meningitis After First Delivery: Case Report and Literature Review
    by Takashi Saito on December 7, 2023 at 11:00 am

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) is a group of central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases caused by autoantibodies against myelin oligosaccharide protein (MOG), a myelin sheath component protein, and present with a variety of symptoms, including optic neuritis, myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), brainstem encephalitis, and corticobasal encephalitis. It is currently unknown at what point in life MOGAD can develop or how it can be…

  • SEMA6A drives GnRH neuron-dependent puberty onset by tuning median eminence vascular permeability
    by Antonella Lettieri on December 7, 2023 at 11:00 am

    Innervation of the hypothalamic median eminence by Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) neurons is vital to ensure puberty onset and successful reproduction. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying median eminence development and pubertal timing are incompletely understood. Here we show that Semaphorin-6A is strongly expressed by median eminence-resident oligodendrocytes positioned adjacent to GnRH neuron projections and fenestrated capillaries, and that Semaphorin-6A is…

  • Prevalence of serum MOG antibody and AQP4 antibody in optic neuritis after SARS-CoV-2 infection
    by Chuan-Bin Sun on December 6, 2023 at 11:00 am

    CONCLUSION: Serum MOG-Ab and AQP4-Ab were detected in 28.6% (10/35) and 5.7% (2/35) ON cases after SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection may trigger an onset or a relapse of ON, as well as the production of MOG-Ab.

  • A High MCT-Based Ketogenic Diet Suppresses Th1 and Th17 Responses to Ameliorate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice by Inhibiting GSDMD and JAK2-STAT3/4 Pathways
    by Qianye Zhang on December 6, 2023 at 11:00 am

    CONCLUSIONS: this study demonstrates that KD reduces the activation and differentiation of T cells in the spinal cord and spleen and prevents T cell infiltration into CNS of EAE via modulating the GSDMD and STAT3/4 pathways, suggesting that KD is a potentially effective strategy in the treatment of MS.

  • Microglia-derived extracellular vesicles in homeostasis and demyelination/remyelination processes
    by V S B Wies Mancini on December 6, 2023 at 11:00 am

    Microglia (MG) play a crucial role as the predominant myeloid cells in the central nervous system and are commonly activated in multiple sclerosis. They perform essential functions under normal conditions, such as actively surveying the surrounding parenchyma, facilitating synaptic remodeling, engulfing dead cells and debris, and protecting the brain against infectious pathogens and harmful self-proteins. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are diverse structures enclosed by a lipid bilayer that…

  • Spinal interleukin-24 contributes to neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury through interleukin-20 receptor2 in mice
    by Yunyun Cai on December 6, 2023 at 11:00 am

    Neuroinflammation is critically involved in nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, characterized by local and systemic increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-24 (IL-24), a key member of the IL-10 family, has been extensively studied for its therapeutic potential in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and bacterial infections, but whether it is involved in the regulation of neuropathic pain caused by peripheral nerve injury (PNI) has not been well…

  • Systematic review exploring the clinical features of optic neuritis after SARS-CoV infection and vaccination
    by Iliana Georganta on December 6, 2023 at 11:00 am

    CONCLUSION: Patients with ON post-SARS-CoV infection were more likely to experience severe visual impairment than in cases following vaccination. Further research is required to outline the clinical features of ON after COVID-19 infection and vaccination, and establish causality.

  • Abnormal expression of Tau in damaged oligodendrocytes of HLD1 mice
    by Tomohiro Torii on December 5, 2023 at 11:00 am

    No abstract

  • Features, Fates, and Functions of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells
    by Robert A Hill on December 5, 2023 at 11:00 am

    Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are a central nervous system resident population of glia with a distinct molecular identity and an ever-increasing list of functions. OPCs generate oligodendrocytes throughout development and across the life span in most regions of the brain and spinal cord. This process involves a complex coordination of molecular checkpoints and biophysical cues from the environment that initiate the differentiation and integration of new oligodendrocytes that synthesize…

  • White matter injury across neurodegenerative disease
    by Lindsay K Festa on December 5, 2023 at 11:00 am

    Oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin-generating cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are active players in shaping neuronal circuitry and function. It has become increasingly apparent that injury to cells within the OL lineage plays a central role in neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus primarily on three degenerative disorders in which white matter loss is well documented: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We discuss clinical…

  • The neurobiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection
    by Jenny Meinhardt on December 4, 2023 at 11:00 am

    Worldwide, over 694 million people have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, with an estimated 55-60% of those infected developing COVID-19. Since the beginning of the pandemic in December 2019, different variants of concern have appeared and continue to occur. With the emergence of different variants, an increasing rate of vaccination and previous infections, the acute neurological symptomatology of COVID-19 changed. Moreover, 10-45% of individuals with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection experience…